Our Bichon Frise puppies have a play area of their own, an area like a jungle gym. Puppies are given lots of toys that are changed every day so they don't get tired of them. We believe that puppies should be shown a variety of things to help them blossom in healthy adults. This stimulates their imagination and the safe environment in which a selection of toys builds positive behaviors. They get the best quality food and get a lot of attention from everyone in our family. The puppies are brought up in an atmosphere of love and care to bring out their best nature. Now, I litter train my puppies with a lot of success. We begin their paper training as soon as their eyes open and the litter training progresses before 5.
Now, I litter train my puppies with a lot of success. We begin their paper training as soon as the eyes open and the litter training progresses before 5 weeks of age. They're well on the way to being trained to litter when you get them. You're going to have the puppy of your dreams. I use wood pellet litter that is also used in cat boxes. Litter trained puppies make life with a new puppy so much easier. Litter is so much more neat to look at than paper. Give the puppy time to adjust to your home, and then you can start work to train your puppy to go outside. Just take him or her outdoors to the toilet, the puppy will soon learn to ask him to go out all by himself.
A registered name is just that. The name the dog as is know in the breed registery. A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. Breeder like myself register a dog while it is young so that dog is known. Proving that it is indeed a purebreed. There are breed registries and breed clubs for several species of animal, such as dogs, horses, cows and cats. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) also maintains stud books for captive species on display ranging from aardvaarks to zebras. There are also entities which refer to themselves as registries, but which are thinly-veiled marketing devices for vendors of puppies and adult dogs, as well as a means of collecting registration fees from novice dog owners unfamiliar with reputable registries and breed clubs. The puppies call name is the personal name you give your companion. A name usually refects a personality trait or characteristic. The call name can be humourous like our Daisy the 200lb Mastiff or Fang our guinea pig. It can also honour someone or be a fond memory. Such as Suzie Q is an old song that I remember so well, looking at her as a baby I remembered that old song. A call name is usually a short easy to say name to call your buddy to you. For example, the famous Thoroughbred race horse Man o’ War was known by his stable name, “Big Red.” The name can be anything that the animal’s owner prefers. For example, the dog that won the 2008 Westminster show was named Ch K-Run’s Park Me In First, with the call name of “Uno”.
Our puppies are A.K.C registered. You can also transfer registration very easily with CKC as they are sister organizations. The American Kennel Club (or A.K.C.) is the primary registry body for purebred dog pedigrees in America. Beyond maintaining the pedigree registry, the A.K.C. also promotes events such as conformation shows and obedience trials for purebred dogs and confers championship and other titles in conformation, obedience and similar competitions. The American Kennel Club is a national, member-based, non-profit organization, incorporated under the Animal Pedigree Act of America. Founded in 1888, it provides registry services for all the 174 dog breeds which it currently recognizes, and provides governance for all A.K.C. approved shows, trial and events. A.K.C. provides news and information to its membership through its association with Dogs in Canada monthly magazine. For a dog to be registered with the A.K.C., the dog's parents must be registered with the A.K.C. as the same breed, and the litter in which the dog is born must be registered with the A.K.C. Foreign-born dogs are registered as imports by A.K.C. provided that they are registered with a A.K.C. approved and recognized foreign registry and identified in accordance with A.K.C. regulations. Once these criteria are met, the dog is eligible to be registered as purebred by the A.K.C. The Animal Pedigree Act provides that only one official registry per breed may exist in Canada, and other breeds not recognised by A.K.C. are registered by other registries such as the Canine Federation of Canada and the Working Canine Association of Canada. A.K.C. members may only breed A.K.C. recognised breeds and are required to sign a membership pledge not to engage in the buying, selling or breeding of dogs not purebred (purebred being defined as eligible for A.K.C. registration). The American Kennel Club (or AKC ) is a registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. Beyond maintaining its pedigree registry, this kennel club also promotes and sanctions events for purebred dogs, including the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, an annual event which predates the official forming of the AKC, the National Dog Show, and the AKC/Eukanuba National Championship. Unlike most other country's kennels clubs, the AKC is not part of the International Canine Organisation, Fédération Cynologique Internationale.
All of our puppies are tattooed and have their first shots. Our puppies are all vet checked and approved each given a clean health bill by the vet before leaving our home. They also have to pass my own criteria before they travel to their home forever. The puppy must be fully weaned, eat hard food, and play with their brothers and sisters. They must also be large enough and old enough to be able to travel. I offer you nine days to take your puppy to your own vet for another check with the ability to return your puppy if your vet finds him or her unhealthy. We offer a full refund if your puppy is not in perfect health.
Our puppies are current with their shots. We provide you with due dates of their next available shot. The 5 way shot is usually what we give… it has Parvo, Distemper, Adenovirus, Hepatitis and Parainfluenza. Only 3 of these are “CORE” vaccines, but most Conventional Vets just do not carry any vaccines with less than this.
We suggest you NEVER give more than a “5 way shot”.
9 – 10 Weeks → Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV (e.g. Intervet Progard Puppy DPV)
14 Weeks → Same As Above
20 Weeks or Older, if allowable by law → Rabies
1 Year → Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV
1 Year → Rabies, killed 3-year product (give 3-4 weeks apart from distemper/parvovirus booster)
Shipping is available. I will only use IATA Approved airlines. They have a book of rules for transporting your pet. These are not guidelines but rules with fines attached for ignoring them. All live animals are secured in the cargo holds which are located underneath the passenger deck. The holds are temperature and pressure controlled in exactly the same way as the passenger cabins and comfortable. Whilst the holds do not have any lighting whilst in flight, it has been proven over the years that animals travel better in darkness and that they arrive in better shape than the passengers as animals do not suffer jet-lag!
We do not pressure to wean from their moms, I've found that bichon puppies are a unique breed that needs close social ties with their moms, so they're never prevented from spending time with their moms. The mothers of Bichon don't wean their puppies. Bichon mothers don't punish or push away their young, but wait until the puppy is ready to wean itself around 6 and 7 weeks. I have a belief that the Mom's know what they are doing without my interference and found that I have been rewarded with happy healthy babies and parents.
All working parents need to purchase is a playpen or a portable pet pen and equip it with food, water and a litter box. The other option is baby gates and cordon off the kitchen or bathroom while you are gone.
Most breeders will give you food for a few days, along with instructions for feeding so that your puppy will have the same diet he is accustomed to until you can buy a supply at your pet shop.
As a general rule, a puppy from weaning time (six weeks) to three months of age should be fed four meals a day; from three months to six months, three meals a day; from six months to one year, two meals a day. There are as many feeding schedules as there are breeders, and puppies do fine on all of them, so it is best for the new owner to follow the one given by the breeder of his puppy. Remember that all dogs are individuals. The amount that will keep your dog in good health is right for him, not the "rule book" amount. Set up a feeding schedule that suits your family’s routine and keep to those times so that your puppy knows when meal times are.
Do not change the amounts in your puppy’s diet too rapidly. If he gets diarrhea it may be that he is eating too much, so cut back on his food and when he is normal again increase his food more slowly.
There is a canned food made especially for puppies which you can buy with a veterinarian’s prescription, and several commercially prepared products. Some breeders use this method very successfully from weaning to three months. It is in my experience that dried puppy food is the best as it contains more protein than canned food and baby’s need their protein. You can soften dried the dry kibble with water, milk can make your puppy’s stools too hard.
Changing over to an adult program of feeding is not difficult. Very often the puppy will change himself; that is, he will refuse to eat some of his meal. He’ll adjust to his one meal (or two meals) a day without any trouble at all.
If there is a need to change from one brand of puppy (or dog) food to another do so by mixing both foods for a while. This gives your puppy’s system time to get use to the new brand of food. Changing brands of food can often upset the delicate stomach of a puppy or dog. Giving your puppy different flavors or brands of puppy (or dog) food very often cause finicky eaters.
Chances are good that the first night your puppy is in his new home, both of you will get little sleep. Keep in mind that suddenly being away from his mom, brothers and sisters is a new experience for him; he may be confused and frightened. You can hardly blame your puppy for having difficulty sleeping. Dogs are creatures of habit and routine. Your puppy will miss his mother and littermates and will feel uncomfortable in his new surroundings until he forms a bond with you. Like a young child, your puppy has little control over his emotions and even though he may cry, scolding him will do nothing but cause him to fear you.
If you have a special room in which you have his bed, be sure that there is nothing there with which he can harm himself. Be sure that all lamp cords are out of his reach and that there is nothing that he can tip or pull over. Check furniture that he might get stuck under or behind and objects that he might chew.
If left in a room by himself he will cry and howl, and you will have to steel yourself to be impervious to his whining. After a few nights alone he should adjust. The first night that he is alone it is wise to put a loud ticking alarm clock as well as his toys and a hot water bottle wrapped in a blanket or towel, in the room with him. The alarm clock will make a comforting noise and he will not feel that he is alone. A hot water bottle will give the heat that he would receive from his litter mates. The toys can help keep him busy if he want to play awhile.
If want him to sleep in your room he probably will be quiet all night, reassured by your presence.
NOTE: If your puppy cries for you to come to him for the first few nights, your constant appearance, whether to scold or comfort, will only serve to reinforce the fact that he can make you appear with his cries. Please remember that Bichon do not punish their children-they ignore bad behavior.
I've got plenty of success in training my puppies. I use "Pinnacle" wood pellet litter that can also be used in cat boxes. There are other names of the brand that would be the same. Wood pellets for animal litter are longer than those used in pellet flame stoves. I use wood pellets because the puppy's legs have hair on the bottoms, and the normal cat's litter would be too easy to track and make a big mess. I also found that wood pellets contain more odor than any other cat litter product.Once the puppy become accustomed to his new surrounding, a week or two then you can decide if you want him to continue with the litter box or to replace it with the great outdoors. The puppy can be trained to go outside by slowly moving the litter box outdoors and the puppy will soon learn to ask to go out
Wood particle litters are easy to clean. Remove the feces and remove the particles using a garbage scoop. When the wood debris gets wet it will turn into sawdust and the sawdust will be easily and naturally removed in your regular litter box. I put it in a plastic grocery bag so it can be knotted so it stays on as the sawdust dries. By the time you get your puppy, he / she will be well on his way to home training, which makes life much easier with a new puppy.
When you first get your puppy, keep it in a small area, because it is easy to remember to use the litter box. You can keep food, water and their crate or bed in the same area while you work or away from your new puppy.
Another option is to purchase a second hand playpen and equip it with food, water, bed or crate and a trash can. Both of these options prevent the puppy from being too far away from the litter in any accident. It’s easy to move the litter box out the doors when he grows up.
Once the puppy is accustomed to his new environment for a week or two, you can decide if he should continue with the litter box or move it outside. You can train the puppy to move out by slowly moving the litter box out and the puppy will learn to move out quickly.
Some of my parent Bichon’s is oversensitive to chicken. I have discovered chicken fat to be the most noticeably awful element for making my bichon frise ichy. So I have been set to discover what food sources don't have either chicken or chicken fat in them.
The rundown is beneath in the event that you locate additional names let me know. I will look at it and add it to my developing food recommendation list.
Ground Rice with the wheat layer eliminated, this quality carbohydrate source is profoundly absorbable. Deboned Duck OR Deboned Venison are picked as "novel" protein sources because of their special amino acid profiles. Rice Protein Concentrate is an exceptionally concentrated, effectively digestible protein source explicitly chosen as a special protein supplement to duck or venison. Sunflower Oil is top notch fat sources rich in Omega-6 unsaturated fats that help keep up sound skin and a sparkly coat. Ground Flaxseed is a remarkable fiber hotspot for sound absorption. A naturally rich wellspring of Omega-3 unsaturated fats
This is the food your puppy is on. Make sure your puppy does not get limited or small amout chicken fat or chicken in their diets.
3. Potato Flour
4. Pea Fibre
5. Whole Dried Egg
8. Natural Flavors
9. De-boned Turkey
10. Canola Oli (preserved with mixed tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E)
12. De-boned Salmon
13. De-boned Duck
14. Sun Dried Alfalfa
15. Calcium Carbonate
16. Dicalcium Phosphate
18. Sodium Chloride
19. Potassium Chloride
20. Fruit: (pumpkin, bananas, blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, blackberries, papaya, pineapple )
21. Vegetables: (carrots, lentli beans, broccoli, spinach, alfalfa sprouts, garlic ) 22. Cottage Cheese
23. Schizochytrium Algae (natural source of DHA )
25. Vitamins: (vitamin A, vitamin E, Vitamin C, niacin: source of Vitamin B3, thiamine mononitrate: source of Vitamin B1, pyridoxine hydrochloride: source of Vitamin B6, Riboflavin : source of Vitamin B2, Vitamin K, beta-carotene, inositol: source of Vitamin B8, d-calcium panthothenate, vitamin D3, folic acid: (source of vitamin B9) biotin: source of vitamin B7 or H, vitamin B12)
26. Minerals: (zinc proteinate, ferrous sulfate, zinc oxide, iron proteinate, copper sulfate, copper proteinate, manganese proteinate, manganous oxide, calcium iodate, sodium selenite)
27. Prebiotics: ( chicory root extract, mannanoligosaccharides )
28. Probiotics: ( lactobaclilus acidophlius, lactobaclilus casei, enterococcus faecium, bifido bacterium thermophlium ) ( Ascorbyl-Polyphosphate )
29. Digestive Enzymes: (dried trichoderma viride fermentation extract ),( dried asperglilus niger fermentation extract ),( dried asperglilus oryzae fermentation extract )
32. DL Methionine
34. Yucca Schidigera Extract
35. Marigold Extract
37. Dried Rosemary
Salmon Meal Salmon Oatmeal Whole Oats Canola Oil preserved with mixed tocopherols (vit. E) Oat fiber Inulin (FOS) Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) Yucca Schidigera Vitamin A Acetate Cholecalciferol(vit. D3) dl Alpha Tocopherol Acetate (vit. E) Ferrous Sulfate *Zinc Proteinate Zinc Oxide Ascorbic Acid (vit. C) Niacin Calcium Pantothenate Copper Sulfate *Copper Proteinate Manganous Oxide *Manganese Proteinate Riboflavin Calcium Iodate Thiamine Mononitrate Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (vit. B6) Folic Acid Biotin Sodium Selenite Cobalt Carbonate Vitamin K Vitamin B12 /ol
Beef Beef Meal Cracked Pearled Barley Brown Rice Millet Rice Bran Canola Oil Ocean Fish Meal Tomato Pomace Flaxseed Natural Flavor Salmon Oil (source of DHA) Choline Chloride Taurine ried Chicory Root Parsley Flakes Pumpkin Meal Almond Oil Sesame Oil Yucca Schidigera Extract Thyme Blueberries Cranberries Carrots Broccoli Vitamin E Supplement Iron Proteinate Zinc Proteinate Copper Proteinate Ferrous Sulfate Zinc Sulfate Copper Sulfate Potassium Iodide Thiamine Mononitrate Manganese Proteinate Manganous Oxide Ascorbic Acid Vitamin A Supplement Biotin Calcium Panthothenate Manganese Sulfate Sodium Selenite Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Vitamin B12 Supplement Riboflavin Supplement Vitamin D Supplement Folic Acid
Bison Ocean Fish Meal Millet Brown Rice Cracked Pearled Barley Rice Bran Canola Oil Tomato Pomace Flaxseed Natural Flavor Salmon Oil (source of DHA) Choline Chloride Taurine Dried Chicory Root Parsley Flakes Pumpkin Meal Almond Oil Sesame Oil Yucca Schidigera Extract Thyme Blueberries Cranberries Carrots Broccoli Vitamin E Supplement Iron Proteinate Copper Proteinate Ferrous Sulfate Zinc Sulfate Copper Sulfate Potassium Iodide Thiamine Mononitrate Manganese Proteinate Manganous Oxide Ascorbic Acid Vitamin A Supplement Biotin Calcium Panthothenate Manganese Sulfate Sodium Selenite Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) Riboflavin Vitamin D Supplement Folic Acid
Ocean Fish Meal Beef Potatoes Potato Protein Canola Oil Tomato Pomace Natural Flavoring Salmon Oil (source of DHA) Choline Chloride Taurine Dried Chicory Parsley Flakes Pumpkin Meal Almond Oil Sesame Oil Yucca Schidigera Extract Thyme Blueberries Cranberries Carrots Broccoli Vitamin E Supplement Iron Proteinate Zinc Proteinate Ferrous Sulfate Zinc Sulfate Copper Sulfate Potassium Iodide Thiamine Mononitrate Manganese Proteinate Manganous Oxide Ascorbic Acid Vitamin A Supplement Biotin Calcium Panthothenate Manganese Sulfate Sodium Selenite Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Vitamin B12(Cyanocobalaminƚ Riboflavin Vitamin D Supplement Folic Acid
I would like to thank THE US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR VETERINARY MEDICINE for the information below.
The following consumer information is provided by David A. Dzanis, DVM, Ph.D., DACVN.
Pet food labelling is regulated at two levels. The Federal regulations, enforced by the FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), establish standards applicable for all animal feeds: proper identification of product, net quantity statement, manufacturer’s address, and proper listing of ingredients. Some States also enforce their own labelling regulations. Many of these have adopted the model pet food regulations established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). These regulations are more specific in nature, covering aspects of labelling such as the product name, the guaranteed analysis, the nutritional adequacy statement, feeding directions, and calorie statements.
The product name is the first part of the label noticed by the consumer, and can be a key factor in the consumer’s decision to buy the product. For that reason, manufacturers often use fanciful names or other techniques to emphasize a particular aspect. Since many consumers purchase a product based on the presence of a specific ingredient, many product names incorporate the name of an ingredient to highlight its inclusion in the product. The percentages of named ingredients in the total product are dictated by four AAFCO rules.
The “95%” rule applies to products consisting primarily of meat, poultry or fish, such as some of the canned products. They have simple names, such as “Beef for Dogs” or “Tuna Cat Food.” In these examples, at least 95% of the product must be the named ingredient (beef or tuna, respectively), not counting the water added for processing and “condiments.” Counting the added water, the named ingredient still must comprise 70% of the product. Since ingredient lists must be declared in the proper order of predominance by weight, “beef” or “tuna” should be the first ingredient listed, followed often by water, and then other components such as vitamins and minerals. If the name includes a combination of ingredients, such as “Chicken 'n Liver Dog Food,” the two together must comprise 95% of the total weight. The first ingredient named in the product name must be the one of higher predominance in the product. For example: the product could not be named #8220;Lobster and Salmon for Cats” if there is more salmon than lobster in the product. Because this rule only applies to ingredients of animal origin, ingredients that are not from a meat, poultry or fish source, such as grains and vegetables, cannot be used as a component of the 95% total. For example, a “Lamb and Rice Dog Food” would be misnamed unless the product was comprised of at least 95% lamb. .
The “25%” or “dinner” rule applies to many canned and dry products. If the named ingredients comprise at least 25% of the product (not counting the water for processing), but less than 95%, the name must include a qualifying descriptive term, such as “Beef Dinner for Dogs.” Many descriptors other than “dinner” are used, however. “Platter,” “entree,” “nuggets” and “formula” are just a few examples. Because, in this example, only one-quarter of the product must be beef, it would most likely be found third or fourth on the ingredient list. Since the primary ingredient is not always the named ingredient, and may in fact be an ingredient that is not desired, the ingredient list should always be checked before purchase. For example, a cat owner may have learned from his or her finicky feline to avoid buying products with fish in it, since the cat doesn't like fish. However, a “Chicken Formula Cat Food” may not always be the best choice, since some “chicken formulas” may indeed contain fish, and sometimes may contain even more fish than chicken. A quick check of the ingredient list would avert this mistake. .
If more than one ingredient is included in a “dinner” name, they must total 25% and be listed in the same order as found on the ingredient list. Each named ingredient must be at least 3% of the total, too. Therefore, “Chicken n' Fish Dinner Cat Food” must have 25% chicken and fish combined, and at least 3% fish. Also, unlike the “95%” rule, this rule applies to all ingredients, whether of animal origin or not. For example, a “Lamb and Rice Formula for Cats” would be an acceptable name as long as the amounts of lamb and rice combined totalled 25%. The “3%” or “with” rule was originally intended to apply only to ingredients highlighted on the principal display panel, but outside the product name, in order to allow manufacturers to point out the presence of minor ingredients that were not added in sufficient quantity to merit a “dinner” claim. For example, a “Cheese Dinner,” with 25% cheese, would not be feasible or economical to produce, but either a “Beef Dinner for Dogs” or “Chicken Formula Cat Food” could include a side burst “with cheese” if at least 3% cheese is added. Recent amendments to the AAFCO model regulations now allow use of the term “with” as part of the product name, too, such as “Dog Food With Beef” or “Cat Food With Chicken.” Now, even a minor change in the wording of the name has a dramatic impact on the minimum amount of the named ingredient required, e.g., a can of “Cat Food With Tuna” could be confused with a can of “Tuna Cat Food,” but, whereas the latter example must contain at least 95% tuna, the first needs only 3%. Therefore, the consumer must read labels carefully before purchase to ensure that the desired product is obtained. .
Under the “flavor” rule, a specific percentage is not required, but a product must contain an amount sufficient to be able to be detected. There are specific test methods, using animals trained to prefer specific flavours that can be used to confirm this claim. In the example of “Beef Flavour Dog Food,” the word “flavor” must appear on the label in the same size, style and color as the word “beef.” The corresponding ingredient may be beef, but more often it is another substance that will give the characterizing flavour, such as beef meal or beef by-products. .
With respect to flavours, pet foods often contain “digests,” which are materials treated with heat, enzymes and/or acids to form concentrated natural flavours. Only a small amount of a “chicken digest” is needed to produce a “Chicken Flavoured Cat Food,” even though no actual chicken is added to the food. Stocks or broths are also occasionally added. Whey is often used to add a milk flavour. Often labels will bear a claim of “no artificial flavors.” Actually, artificial flavours are rarely used in pet foods. The major exception to that would be artificial smoke or bacon flavours, which are added to some treats. .
The net quantity statement tells you how much product is in the container. There are many FDA regulations dictating the format, size and placement of the net quantity statement. None of these do any good if the consumer does not check the quantity statements, especially when comparing the cost of products. For example, a 14-ounce can of food may look identical to the one-pound can of food right next to it. Also, dry products may differ greatly in density, especially some of the “lite” products. Thus, a bag that may typically hold 40 pounds of food may only hold 35 pounds of a food that is “puffed up.” A cost-per-ounce or per-pound comparison between products is always prudent.
The “manufactured by...” statement identifies the party responsible for the quality and safety of the product and its location. If the label says “manufactured for...” or “distributed by...,” the food was manufactured by an outside manufacturer, but the name on the label still designates the responsible party. Not all labels include a street address along with the city, State, and zip code, but by law, it should be listed in either a city directory or a telephone directory. Many manufacturers also include a toll-free number on the label for consumer inquiries. If a consumer has a question or complaint about the product, he or she should not hesitate to use this information to contact the responsible party.
All ingredients are required to be listed in order of predominance by weight. The weights of ingredients are determined as they are added in the formulation, including their inherent water content. This latter fact is important when evaluating relative quantity claims, especially when ingredients of different moisture contents are compared.
For example, one pet food may list “meat” as its first ingredient, and “corn” as its second. The manufacturer doesn't hesitate to point out that its competitor lists “corn” first (“meat meal” is second), suggesting the competitor's product has less animal-source protein than its own. However, meat is very high in moisture (approximately 75% water). On the other hand, water and fat are removed from meat meal, so it is only 10% moisture (what's left is mostly protein and minerals). If we could compare both products on a dry matter basis (mathematically “remove” the water from both ingredients), one could see that the second product had more animal-source protein from meat meal than the first product had from meat, even though the ingredient list suggests otherwise.
That is not to say that the second product has more “meat” than the first, or in fact, any meat at all. Meat meal is not meat per se, since most of the fat and water have been removed by rendering. Ingredients must be listed by their “common or usual” name. Most ingredients on pet food labels have a corresponding definition in the AAFCO Official Publication. For example, “meat” is defined as the “clean flesh of slaughtered mammals and is limited to...the striate muscle...with or without the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of the skin, sinew, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh.” On the other hand, “meat meal” is “the rendered product from mammal tissues, exclusive of any added blood, hair, horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents.” Thus, in addition to the processing, it could also contain parts of animals one would not think of as “meat.” Meat meal may not be very pleasing to think about eating yourself, even though it's probably more nutritious. Animals do not share in people's aesthetic concerns about the source and composition of their food. Regardless, the distinction must be made in the ingredient list (and in the product name). For this reason, a product containing “lamb meal” cannot be named a “Lamb Dinner” .
Further down the ingredient list, the “common or usual” names become less common or usual to most consumers. The majority of ingredients with chemical-sounding names are, in fact, vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients. Other possible ingredients may include artificial colors, stabilizers, and preservatives. All should be either “Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)” or approved food additives for their intended uses.
If scientific data are presented that show a health risk to animals of an ingredient or additive, CVM can act to prohibit or modify its use in pet food. For example, propylene glycol was used as a humectant in soft-moist pet foods, which helps retain water and gives these products their unique texture and taste. It was affirmed Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) for use in human and animal food before the advent of soft-moist foods. It was known for some time that propylene glycol caused Heinz Body formation in the red blood cells of cats (small clumps of proteins seen in the cells when viewed under the microscope), but it could not be shown to cause overt anemia or other clinical effects. However, recent reports in the veterinary literature of scientifically sound studies have shown that propylene glycol reduces the red blood cell survival time, renders red blood cells more susceptible to oxidative damage, and has other adverse effects in cats consuming the substance at levels found in soft-moist food. In light of this new data, CVM amended the regulations to expressly prohibit the use of propylene glycol in cat foods.
Another pet food additive of some controversy is ethoxyquin, which was approved as a food additive over thirty-five years ago for use as an antioxidant chemical preservative in animal feeds. Approximately ten years ago, CVM began receiving reports from dog owners attributing the presence of ethoxyquin in the dog food with a myriad of adverse effects, such as allergic reactions, skin problems, major organ failure, behaviour problems, and cancer. However, there was a paucity of available scientific data to support these contentions, or to show other adverse effects in dogs at levels approved for use in dog foods. More recent studies by the manufacturer of ethoxyquin showed a dose-dependent accumulation of a hemoglobin-related pigment in the liver, as well as increases in the levels of liver-related enzymes in the blood. Although these changes are due to ethoxyquin in the diet, the pigment is not made from ethoxyquin itself, and the health significance of these findings is unknown. More information on the utility of ethoxyquin is still needed in order for CVM to amend the maximum allowable level to below that which would cause these effects, but which still would be useful in preserving the food. While studies are being conducted to ascertain a more accurate minimum effective level of ethoxyquin in dog foods, CVM has asked the pet food industry to voluntarily lower the maximum level of use of ethoxyquin in dog foods from 150 ppm (0.015%) to 75 ppm. Regardless, most pet foods that contained ethoxyquin never exceeded the lower amount, even before this recommended change.
At minimum, a pet food label must state guarantees for the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fibre and moisture. The “crude” term refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself.
Some manufacturers include guarantees for other nutrients as well. The maximum percentage of ash (the mineral component) is often guaranteed, especially on cat foods. Cat foods commonly bear guarantees for taurine and magnesium as well. For dog foods, minimum percentage levels of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid are found on some products.
Guarantees are declared on an “as fed” or “as is” basis, that is, the amounts present in the product as it is found in the can or bag. This doesn't have much bearing when the guarantees of two products of similar moisture content are compared (for example, a dry dog food versus another dry dog food). However, when comparing the guaranteed analyses between dry and canned products, one will note that the levels of crude protein and most other nutrients are much lower for the canned product. This can be explained by looking at the relative moisture contents. Canned foods typically contain 75-78% moisture, whereas dry foods contain only 10-12% water. To make meaningful comparisons of nutrient levels between a canned and dry product, they should be expressed on the same moisture basis.
The most accurate means of doing this is to convert the guarantees for both products to a dry matter basis. The percentage of dry matter of the product is equal to 100% minus the percentage of moisture guaranteed on the label. A dry food is approximately 88-90% dry matter, while a canned food is only about 22-25% dry matter. To convert a nutrient guarantee to a dry matter basis, the percent guarantee should be divided by the percentage of the dry matter, then multiplied by 100. For example, a canned food guarantees 8% crude protein and 75% moisture (or 25% dry matter), while a dry food contains 27% crude protein and 10% moisture (or 90% dry matter). Which has more protein, the dry or canned? Calculating the dry matter protein of both, the canned contains 32% crude protein on a dry matter basis (8/25 X 100 = 32), while the dry has only 30% on a dry matter basis (27/90 X 100 = 30). Thus, although it looks like the dry has a lot more protein, when the water is counted out, the canned actually has a little more. An easier way is to remember that the amount of dry matter in the dry food is about four times the amount in a canned product. To compare guarantees between a dry and canned food, multiply the guarantees for the canned food times four first.
It is especially important to look at the moisture guarantee for canned foods, even when comparing a canned food with another canned. Under AAFCO regulations, the maximum percentage moisture content for a pet food is 78%, except for products labeled as a “stew,” “in sauce,” “in gravy,” or similar terms. The extra water gives the product the qualities needed to have the appropriate texture and fluidity. Some of these exempted products have been found to contain as much as 87.5% moisture. This doesn't sound like much difference until the dry matter contents are compared. For example, a product with a guarantee of 87.5% moisture contains 12.5% dry matter, only half as much as a product with a 75% moisture guarantee (25% dry matter) .
Feeding directions instruct the consumer on how much product should be offered to the animal. At minimum, they should include verbiage such as “feed ___ cups per___ pounds of body weight daily.” On some small cans, this may be all the information that can fit. The feeding directions should be taken as rough guidelines, a place to start. Breed, temperament, environment, and many other factors can influence food intake. Manufacturers attempt to cover almost all contingencies by setting the directions for the most demanding. The best suggestion is to offer the prescribed amount at first, and then to increase or cut back as needed to maintain body weight in adults or to achieve proper rate of gain in puppies and kittens. A nursing mother should be offered all the food she wants to eat.
Pet foods can vary greatly in calorie content, even among foods of the same type (dry, canned) and formulated for the same life stage. Feeding directions vary among manufacturers, too, so the number of calories delivered in a daily meal of one food may be quite different from another. The number of calories in a product roughly relates to the amount of fat, although varying levels of non-calorie-containing components, such as water and fiber, can throw this correlation off. The best way for consumers to compare products and determine how much to be fed is to know the calorie content. However, until recently, calorie statements were not allowed on pet food labels. New AAFCO regulations were developed to allow manufacturers to substantiate calorie content and include a voluntary statement.
If a calorie statement is made on the label, it must be expressed on a “kilocalories per kilogram” basis. Kilocalories are the same as the “Calories” consumers are used to seeing on food labels. A “kilogram” is a unit of metric measurement equal to 2.2 pounds. Manufacturers are also allowed to express the calories in familiar household units along with the required statement (for example, “per cup” or “per can”). Even without this additional information, however, consumers can make meaningful comparisons between products and pick the product best suited for their animals' needs. As with the guaranteed analysis, the calorie statement is made on an “as fed” basis, so corrections for moisture content must be made as described above. To roughly compare the caloric content values between a canned and a dry food, multiply the value for the canned food by four.
Many pet foods are labelled as “premium,” and some now are “super premium” and even “ultra premium.” Other products are touted as “gourmet” items. Products labelled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
The term “natural” is often used on pet food labels, although that term does not have an official definition either. For the most part, “natural” can be construed as equivalent to a lack of artificial flavours, artificial colors, or artificial preservatives in the product. As mentioned above, artificial flavours are rarely employed anyway. Artificial colors are not really necessary, except to please the pet owner's eye. If used, they must be from approved sources, the same as for human foods. Especially for high-fat dry products, some form of preservative must be used to prevent rancidity. Natural-source preservatives, such as mixed tocopherols (a source of vitamin E), can be used in place of artificial preservatives. However, they may not be as effective.
“Natural” is not the same as “organic.” The latter term refers to the conditions under which the plants were grown or animals were raised. There are no official rules governing the labelling of organic foods (for humans or pets) at this time, but the United States Department of Agriculture is developing regulations dictating what types of pesticides, fertilizers and other substances can be used in organic farming.
Pet owners and veterinary professionals have a right to know what they are feeding their animals. The pet food label contains a wealth of information, if one knows how to read it. Do not be swayed by the many marketing gimmicks or eye-catching claims. If there is a question about the product, contact the manufacturer or ask an appropriate regulatory agency.
You need to become acquainted with the variations that need to be noted in the mentioned criteria between kennel clubs if you wish to show your dog or become involved in serious breeding. This list applies to the AKC. The standard criteria vary for international shows between clubs, jurisdictions, and then again.
The Bichon Frise is a small, robust, white powder puff of a dog whose merry temperament is demonstrated by its jauntily carried plumed tail over the back and its inquisitive expression of dark eyed. His movement is accurate and real, coming and going. He tests the same from withers to ground in profile as from wither to tail set.The body from forward most point of the sternum to the buttocks is slightly longer than height at the withers. He moves with steady top line, easy reach and drive.
The head is covered with a topknot of hair that creates an overall rounded impression. The skull is slightly rounded allowing for round and forward looking eyes. A properly balanced head is three parts muzzle to five parts skull, measured from the nose to the accentuated stop and from stop to occuput “back part of head“, a line drawn between the outside corners of the eyes and to the nose will create a near equilateral triangle. There is a slight degree of chiselling under the eyes, but not so much as to result in a weak or snipey foreface. The lower jaw is strong.
The nose is always black and prominent.
Teeth meet in a scissors bite. An undershot or overshot jaw should be severely penalized. A crooked or out of line tooth is permissible, however, missing teeth are to be severely faulted.
Eyes are round, black or dark brown and set in the skull to look directly forward. An overly large or bulging eye is a fault as is an almond shaped obliquely set eye. Halos, the black of very dark brown skin surrounding the eyes, are necessary as they accentuate the eye and enhance expression. The eye rims themselves must be black. Broken pigment or a total absence of pigment on the eye rims produces a blank and staring expression which is a definite fault. Yellow, blue or grey eyes are a serious fault and should be penalized.
Lips are black, fine, never drooping.
Ears are dropped and are covered with long flowing hair. When extended toward the nose, the leathers should reach approximately halfway the length of the muzzle. They are set on slightly higher than eye level and rather forward on the skull, so that when the dog is alerted they serve to frame the face. The arched neck is long and carried proudly and gracefully behind an erect head. It blends smoothly into the shoulders. The length of neck from occiput to withers is approximately one third the distance from sternum to buttocks.
The top line is level except for a slight arch over the loin.
Sternum is well pronounced and protrudes slightly forward of the point of shoulder.
Chest is well developed and wide enough to allow free and unrestricted forward movement of the front legs.
Ribcage is moderately sprung and extends back to a short and muscular loin.
Tail is well plumed, set on level with the top line and is curved gracefully over the back so that the hair of the tail rests on the back. A low tail set, a tail carried perpendicularly to the back or a tail which droops behind should be severely penalized. When the tail is extended toward the head it should reach at least half way to the withers. A corkscrew tail is a very serious fault.
The shoulder blade, upper arm and forearm should be approximately equal in length. The shoulders are laid well back so that the elbow is placed directly below the withers when viewed from the side. The upper arm extends well back so that the elbow is placed directly below the withers when viewed from the side.
Legs should be medium boned, not too fine or too coarse, straight with no bow or curve in the forearm or wrist. The elbows are held close to the body.
Feet are tight and round resembling those of a cat and point directly forward, turning neither in nor out. Pads are black. Nails are kept short and dew claws may be removed.
Hindquarters are of medium bone, well angulated with muscular thighs and spaced moderately wide. The upper and lower thigh is nearly equal in length meeting at a well bent stifle joint. The leg from hock joint to foot pad is perpendicular to the ground. Paws are tight and round with black pads. Cow hocks are a very serious fault.
Texture of the coat is of utmost importance. The undercoat is soft and dense, the outer coat of a coarser and curlier texture. The combination of the two gives a soft but substantial feel to the touch which is similar to plush when patted springs back. When bathed and brushed it stands off from the body, creating an overall powder puff appearance. A wiry coat is not desirable. A silky coat is a fault. A coat that lies down and lack of undercoat are very serious faults. The coat is trimmed to reveal the natural outline of the body. It is rounded off from any direction and never cut so short as to create an overly trimmed or squared off appearance. The furnishings of the head, beard, moustache, ears and tail are left longer. The top line should be trimmed to appear level. The coat should be long enough to maintain the powder puff look which is characteristic of the breed. The color is white, may have shadings of buff, cream or apricot around the ears or on the body. Any color in excess of 10% of the entire coat of a mature specimen is a fault and should be penalized, but color of the accepted shadings should not be faulted in puppies.
Movement at a trot is free, precise and effortless. In profile the forelegs and hind legs extend equally with an easy reach and drive that maintains a steady top line. When moving, the head and neck should remain somewhat erect and as speed increases there is a very slight convergence of legs toward the center line. Padding or toeing in is a fault. Moving away, the hindquarters travel with moderate width between them and the foot pads can be seen. Hocks that strike each other or are thrown out the sides are faults.
Dogs 9 1/2 to 11 1/2 inches should be given primary preference. Only where the comparative superiority of a specimen outside these ranges clearly justifies it should greater latitude be taken. In no case, however, should this latitude ever extend over 12 inches or under 9 inches. The minimum limits do not apply to puppies.
The Bichon's nature is gentle mannered, very sensitive, playful and affectionate. A cheerful attitude is the hallmark of this breed and one should settle for nothing less.
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